Why you should and should not use manual sugar thermometer?

Candy making generally requires the use of a thermometer. One of the biggest considerations when shopping around for the best sugar thermometer is the type of thermometer. While most people prefer to use a digital sugar thermometer due to many advantages it brings, a manual sugar thermometer also has its strong point over the digital one.

Although used for many years, the manual confectionery style thermometer has its issues. This post will show you the pros and cons of manual thermometer that may make your choice easier.

#1 The problems with manual sugar thermometer

The manual sugar thermometers contain mercury or spirit that goes up and down to indicate readings. They are either metal or glass made. The first drawback is that they are slow to come to temperature. You may have to wait for about a few minutes to get an accurate reading. By contract, the digital sugar thermometer should be able to render a reading in less than 10 seconds.

They are inaccurate and need to be calibrated frequently. After temperature range, you have to about the accuracy. The best digital thermometer will have a margin of error of 2 degrees or less.

Manual candy thermometers are often very hard to read as they do not contain display, especially when over a steaming pot of jam or attract steam and splatter.

They are clipped to the side of a pot, so they only measuring the temperature of your syrup at one point in the pot.

And the last one is most serious problems is that the glass can actually break, ruining your sugar.

#2 Advantages of manual sugar thermometer

Unlike digital, manual readout thermometers never need batteries to operate. A real plus if you consider about what happens if your thermometer dies during a crucial sugaring stage.

Manual thermometers are common and you can easy fine not only at confectionery store. One more advantage is that manual thermometers are much more cheaper than a digital one.

#3 Manual sugar thermometer using tips

Do not wash manual thermometers as it can knock your thermometers and throw them out of whack. It is better to hand wash them.

Since manual thermometer are cheap, you should keep standby thermometer in your kitchen. In the case if your thermometer is break when you are in the middle of a project, it’s always ideal to have a backup one.

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How To Properly Use Glue For Plastic?

Most households have a lot of plastic items and they will inevitably be damaged and need repairing at some point. The best way to fix plastic fragments is to use the best glue for plastic.

However, keep in mind that plastic is not an easy material to stick together. It is quite porous and light to hold and fix for a long time. That is also the reason why many inexperienced people have difficulty repairing damaged plastic items.

Instead of throwing them away, we will show you how to use the correct glue for plastic. So don’t give up yet, but take note of the information below.

#1 Surface cleaning of the material

Cleaning the surface of the material is the first step and also an important step that you must take before using glue to fix the debris.

Cleaning the surface from dirt and other impurities will ensure more effective adhesive. If the surface of the material has any dirt on it, you will have more difficulty fixing them.

You should clean them with water or soap, then let them dry naturally. Take care not to touch the material’s surface directly after cleaning. Sweat or oil from your hands will reduce the sticky effect.

#2 Make the surface  rougher

The next step you need to do is sanding the surface of the material. This step will help the surface to be bonded better and the adhesive can be fixed much longer.

As you know, plastic is a very slippery material, and even the strongest glues have a hard time fixing them. The bottom line here is that you need to give the glue a good grip.

This is also the tip that many craftsmen use for their projects. You can rough the material with sandpaper or emery board.

#3 Stick

To attach plastic fragments together, you need to prepare the right glue. If you use epoxy glue, you need to mix the mixture evenly and in the right ratio, then use immediately to avoid the glue drying quickly.

When applying glue to materials, you need to fix them correctly before the glue dries. Then use your hands to hold these adhesives tightly to make them stick best. You can also hold them in place with an elastic band if you don’t want to hold them with your hands for long.

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Frequently asked questions about best wool blankets for survival

The best wool blankets for survival will keep people warm and cozy even in the extremely cold or damp areas. This is what make it should not be overlooked in your survival kids. They are also essential items for people who live in areas prone to heavy weather.

You might have heard something about wool blankets that they are heavy, cause itch or difficult to maintain. And you are still in two minds about getting one wool blankets or not. This post will help you clear up all the queries.

#1 Are wool blankets heavy?

Wool blankets come in many different weights and the blanket’s uses greatly depend on its weight. The heavier blanket is more suitable to use in the camping or going to events outdoors at night, where you need a blanket to help you keep warm, block the wind outside. These blankets are ideal for extremely cold winter nights.

However, if you live in a temperate climate than several lighter weight blankets or one that is made from breathable and moisture wicking fabrics may be better than a heavy one. The climate in your living area is not too cold, then a 2 lb blanket is all that you might need year round.

#2 How to wash the wool blanket?

Some wool blankets may be ruined of you wash them in the washing machine or dryer. If it is inconvenient for you to dry-clean your wool blanket, then make sure that the wool blanket you choose is machine-washable and dryable.

Make sure that you carefully read and follow the care guidelines that may be included in the label of the blanket. In the case if you cannot put your wool blanket in the washing machine, you can spot clean it. Sometimes an emergency situation, you cannot care much about keep your blanket clean, so it is better to keep an affordable blanket around.

#3 Does the wool itchy?

One thing that you can hear a lot when it comes to wool blankets is that wool can be so darn itchy. If you’ve ever had an itchy wool blanket, then this is because the thickness of each individual wool fiber is not small enough. The high quality finest wool blankets are made with small fibers that don’t cause itching.

The method of refining wool today also makes it less itchy. This is not means that all cheap wool blankets are going to be itchy, but to avoid it, you should get the premium quality blanket.

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What Are The Different Types Of Vacuum Cleaner For Fish Tank?

It cannot be denied that a vacuum cleaner is a necessary device for your aquarium maintenance routine.

Besides its main function of removing all the uneaten food, residue and dirt that built up in your fish tank, keep the tank environment healthy for fish. This device also has been known as making water changes easier and faster.

However, Not every fish keeper really understands the differences between types of the vacuum cleaner. If you are confused when looking for a vacuum cleaner for fish tank, this post is what you need.

Two common types of vacuum cleaner

#1 Electric vacuum cleaner

The best aquarium gravel vacuum does not need containers, hoses and buckets to carry water because this device will not change your water. Instead, it will suck the water through it, keep any waste, excess food that contains in the water.

All you need to do is immerse the vacuum cleaner in a vertical position and turn it on.

This is absolutely easiest way to clean the tank without the mess of water. However, this comes at more costly than the manual versions. The cost of an electric vacuum cleaner can be 5 times than normal siphon cleaner.

One more drawback is that not any perfect electric gravel vacuum available on the market.

Some of them do not work really effective at cleaning. Some make a sound while operating. Some even create the vibration that can bother or scare your fish.

#2 Manual gravel cleaner

This is the most vacuum cleaner for all fish keepers. It is cheap and also comes in many different sizes of siphon that means you can use it for various tank sizes. It is not complicated and is the best aquarium gravel for beginners.

You have to prepare a container or big bucket to contain the water in the vacuum process because you will clean the tank and drain the water at the same time. It will take you more effort than electric devices. Improper using manual devices can cause spills.

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Guide To Buying The Best Hunting Flashlight

If you’re planning on going hunting at night, you need to be able to see in the dark. The most tried and true method of seeing in the dark? Flashlights.

But how do you find the best hunting flashlight? Here are a few features you need to consider.

#1 Lumens

Flashlight brightness is measured in lumens. The brightest flashlights are rated at 3,200 lumens, while the dimmest are around, or even below, the 100 lumen mark.

How bright you want your flashlight is down to personal preference, and what situations you’ll be putting yourself in. Contrary to popular belief, the more powerful flashlights are not necessarily the best. If you’re in total darkness, the last thing you need is to be blinded. If you’re out of commission because you can’t see, it’s not the best flashlight for hunting.

However, this doesn’t mean you can ignore the 3,000 lumen flashlights straight out, because most tactical flashlights have another essential feature:

#2 Flashlight Modes

Most modern flashlights have a set of modes, which are commonly alternated through by continual clicking of the on-off button. Mode order typically goes from brightest to darkest with bonus red and then green modes after that. Some flashlights even offer a “moonlight” mode, which is rated at 0.5 lumens, perfect for battery longevity.

If the mode changing method of clicking the same button over and over doesn’t appeal to you, it may be easier to get a single-mode flashlight in the intensity you want. It may require more initial research, but flashlight use becomes a lot simpler with a single-mode.

#3 Range

Brightness means nothing if you buy a flashlight that only lights up 1 meter in front of you. If you’re hunting, you’re not going to be right next to the game, Only you can judge how close you need to be, so make sure you choose the right flashlight to suit.

#4 Battery Life

What’s the worst feeling in the world? Being a mile away from camp or transport and your only flashlight battery dies, leaving you in total darkness. Be prepared. Look into the average battery drain for your chosen flashlight.

Conclusion

Hopefully, you now feel more confident that you can choose the best flashlight for hunting at night. Remember: there is a multitude of different flashlights, all used in different situations. Make sure you’re choosing the best flashlight for you.

Click here to find out more.

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A leaking marine battery

We provide some tips when your marine battery leaks. Nothing is more annoying than a leaking battery. But what should you do when it actually leaks and even more important; how can you prevent this? Leaking batteries; you recognize a leaking battery by a sticky, grainy and fluid that is present on the outside of the battery.

What you should never do with such a situation is to touch this with your bare hands. A leaking battery should always be touched a gloves. The leaking acids kan be very dangerous for your skin and can bite into your body. If you ever get these substance in your eyes or mouth; call a doctor or medical hospice immediately. After you have some gloves and maybe even some eye protection you can clean the battery. The battery is leaking so maybe you first need to pull the marine out of the car, clean the contained car parts and then focus on the battery itself. You can buy or use a small brush and some vinegar to clean the outside of the battery. This way most of the dirt will be gone and then the real work starts.

The second step is to take apart the battery all together  Fill the fluid, check for any leaks and the electricity cables. If you think you are unable to do this; call your garage and ask them to do this. It will probably take them around 10 minutes to do all the checks. When they are done, or you have done it yourself you can assemble the battery again and place it back in your car. Lighten up and you are ready to go again!

But what can you do to prevent a leaking battery? You should use a battery that is coherent with the type of car, boat or other motor vehicle you are using. Some batteries are more suitable for a ford than an Audi. Place a new battery with great care; make sure the negative and positive sides are turned on well, and never leave your battery on for more than 2 months of not running the motor vehicle. This way the battery will drain all the power, when all the power is drained it starts to leak also fluids. Just make sure when you go on for a long holiday or trip you dispatch all the cables from the marine battery and you are good to go!

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COULD WEED BE GOOD FOR YOUR SKIN?

As per current scientific information, we are very certain that cannabinoids are important biochemical mediators in the skin, even if their components have not been completely understood. If you read out the how to make distillate about the recipes of essential oil then the following ones. After many years of studies and research, the treatment of skin illnesses and conditions with cannabinoids is on the verge of entering a “casual” clinical stage, with more and more patients utilizing cannabis oils, creams, and medicine to treat or control their skin issues. When we talk about skin, everyone is involved one way or another, as everybody encounters probably some sort of irritation in their life. In the most pessimistic scenarios, skin conditions can be devastating, affecting the general health of the patient. Moreover, when you need to manage determined or serious skin disease, opting for the appropriate cure can be challenging—even with the help of an expert. In the course of recent years, studies has started to clarify how cannabinoids can trigger biochemical responses in animal bodies, helping, healing or shielding the skin from the symptoms of various dermatological conditions. smooth and clear skin. One of the most commonly used california seed banks online is to steam the face, which reduces the sebum buildup. As an outcome of both lab information and patient experience, CBD is today viewed as one of the most promising compounds for the treatment of a variety of skin diseases.

CANNABINOID RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN

Inflammation is the reason for most of skin diseases, and cytokines are the primary inflammatory chemical messengers emitted by immune cells in cases of distress. Cannabinoids apply their mitigating properties by reducing cytokine production and controlling skin cell functionality through their actions on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises of biochemical receptors spread all through our whole body, influencing different physiological procedures. Cannabinoid receptors are found all through the skin, and their modulation by endogenous or outer cannabinoids can control the balance and wellbeing of skin cells. A few pieces of research are available to enable us to comprehend the specific action of cannabinoids on our skin. One bit of comprehensive research refers to the skin’s endocannabinoid system as an objective for new therapeutic opportunities, listing all the conceivable conditions that may soon be dealt with. These include skin tumors, psoriasis, seborrhoea, acne, and dermatitis. skin which is prone to breakouts and one that can how to make distillate at home in both men and women. While these results are being published, a lot of people around the world were already adding hemp and CBD products to their everyday skincare routine or to their skin-treatment tools.

CALMING PSORIASIS

The anti-inflammatory action of THC, CBD, and furthermore cannabinol (CBN) and cannabigerol (CBG) were found to have the capacity to inhibit the proliferation of skin cells. In 2007, a study noted that these cannabinoids inhibited the development of keratinocytes in the outer layers of the skin, supporting a potential role for cannabinoids in the treatment of psoriasis. of this post, I will help you to choose the high times top seed banks . I will identify some of the top picks that. Also, the reduced immune response from the skin induced by CBD and THC is another effect that adds to the treatment of psoriasis symptoms. In 2016, a review of available scientific literature affirmed that cannabinoids may represent a helpful treatment for this condition, even if large-scale clinical studies will be important to affirm both these results and the beneficial outcomes officially reported by

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How To Install a Drip Irrigation System Using Only 3 Materials

Today I’m going to show you how I installed a drip irrigation system in my raised beds using only 3 materials. I don’t have a background in anything technical. Most of my adult life I have been a middle school teacher and tennis coach, but this system was very simple and setting it up was easy. I’m going to show you exactly how I did it, and of course I took plenty of pictures so you can have examples to look at.

Materials include:

  • 25 ft Waterwise Drip Hose by Thombo
  • 20 ft Connection Tubing by Thombo
  • Hole Punch (included with connection tubing)

Tools Used:

  • Scissors
  • Pocket Knife or Garden Shears
  • Pliers (optional)

Step 1- Cut the Drip Tape

The first thing I did was cut up the Waterwise Drip Hose by Thombo into the sections I needed for my raised beds. The drip hose has drip emitters spaced every 1 foot along the drip line. So I used the drip emitters as a guide to help me cut the appropriate length I needed. When I did cut a piece off, I made my cut in the middle of drip emitters.

If I had a larger section to water I could have chosen a larger drip hose, but this project was small so I went with the 25 ft size. After I cut the drip tape to the size I wanted, I laid the pieces in the position I wanted them to be. The pieces ended up being 4 feet long and I used 3 pieces in one bed and 3 pieces in the other. I used up a total of 24 ft and had 1 ft left over.

Step 2- Close off the Ends

Next, I needed to close off the ends. To do this, I cut one inch of drip hose from the ends to use as a clamp. I then folded the remaining end two times in 1 inch sections. After folding the ends I need to bend the ends into a U-shape so that it is easier to slip the 1 inch end on over the folds. I continued to this process on all of the ends.

Step 3- Attach Drip Hose Using the Connection Tubing

I needed to attach the drip hose pieces so that water can pass between them. I attached the drip hose by using the connection tubing. I used a sharp pocket knife to cut the connection tubing into the lengths that I needed. I think that sharp garden sheers may have been easier to use though. When you cut the connection tubing make sure you have enough connection tubing to be inserted into the drip hose about 5 inches. Also, when you cut the connection tubing make sure you cut it at an angle.

Next, use the hole puncher to poke a hole into the end of the drip hose. Be sure to prop open the drip hose so when you go to poke a hole in it you won’t poke through to the other side. Also, make sure you poke slowly. It is easy to poke all the way through the drip hose if you are not careful. Also, do not make your hole too big. If your hole is too big water could leak out. You could even have your hole a little on the small side, that way when you insert the connection tubing into the hose, the tubing can expand the hole to the appropriate size.

Here I am connecting all the drip hose pieces using the connection tubing. I make sure that I insert the connection tubing about 5 inches into the drip hose.

I am also going to connect the two beds together using the connection tubing. Since the beds aren’t very far from each other nor are the beds up very high, I can get away with using the connection tubing for this. If my raised beds were higher or much further away I would needed to use header tubing to make sure a good flow of water got to the other bed. But in this instance, I’m good! I also plan to bury the connection tubing so that I will still be able to mow between the beds.

Step 4- Connect to a Water Source

Connect your system to a water source and turn on the water. When the drip hose starts to fill up with water, it is much easier now to place the hose where you want it to be since it is heavier. Also, your entire system can be buried. I could bury it all under the dirt if I wanted to, but I plan to put straw mulch over it.

Final Thoughts

This system was extremely easy to put together. Even with taking pictures, I got this system finished within 30 minutes. The only part I see being difficult for people is closing off the ends of the drip hose. I’m a pretty strong girl so it wasn’t too much trouble for me to make the u-shape bend with my hands. However, I could see how it would be difficult for some people. One way to get past this is to use some pliers and a piece of cloth to get the bend you need to slip on your one inch end.

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15 Things You Can Do Today To Have A Waterwise Garden

Gardeners that effectively conserve water in their gardens do three things well:

  • First, they plan a garden that reduces the amount of water that is needed.
  • Second, they use methods that reuse water and efficiently water their plants.
  • And third, they use certain techniques to prevent water loss.

But you’re probably wondering, “What specifically can I do to have a water-wise garden?” Well today I’ll be sharing some easy to do tips that you can begin implementing. All you need to do is take some time out of your day and tackle one of the 15 waterwise tips below. Let’s begin!

1. Add organic matter to your soil to hold water for your plants

One reason your soil could be wasting water is if it is lacking organic matter. Organic matter has the ability to absorb water like a sponge. An advantage of organic matter holding water is that the organic matter will release most of the water it absorbs to plants. Organic matter in soil will help you save water if your soil is sandy because the organic matter holds the water for plants instead of letting it drain through too quickly.

Organic matter can also help you conserve water if you have clay soil as well. Usually drainage problems are associated with clay soil and water might have trouble getting to the plant’s roots. Organic matter can provide space in between soil particles so water can penetrate into the soil better.

Adding organic matter to soil is inexpensive and easy to do. Just start a compost pile with some of the already present organic matter in your yard. Lawn clippings, straw, and especially fall leaves make great addition to a compost pile. You can also add things from your kitchen like used coffee grounds, tea leaves, and crushed egg shells.

Left over table scraps can also be added, but use in moderation (less than 10% of your entire compost)! Otherwise your compost bin will start to stink. Also avoid adding meat and dairy scraps.

Before planting in your garden, layer 2-3 inches of compost onto the soil, then dig or till the compost into the soil about 8-12 inches in depth. If your soil is sandy add a little more, if your soil is clay-like add a little less.

Compost can also help soil by attracting earthworms. Soil can become compacted by too much foot traffic or heavy rain compacting soil together. Compacted soil can cause runoff and prevent roots from spreading out. However, if you have earthworms traveling through the soil and loosening it up as they move it can help water and air move around better and roots are no longer restricted.

2. Mulching Reduces the Amount of Water Needed to Water Plants

There are several different ways that mulching helps with this. Here are a few:

  • Prevents soil compaction and helps soil stay loose so water can pass freely to plant roots
  • Reduces evaporation by keeping soil cooler so that more moisture is held in
  • Prevents the growth of weeds that compete with your plants for water, nutrients, and sunlight

Unlike compost, mulch is spread over the surface of soil. Over time it can slowly decompose into the soil and provide nutrients. For flower beds and vegetable gardens, mulch like fall leaves, grass clippings, or straw work well. Grass clippings need to be applied on the thin side, maybe about 1-2 inches because they can clump if they get wet. Straw can be applied a little thicker, about 2-4 inches. Just make sure you keep the mulch a couple inches away from the plant stems.

Wood clippings work well for trees and shrubs. Make sure you avoid mulch volcano. If you apply too much mulch around a tree or shrub, you could do more harm than good. The mulch only needs to be 2-4 inches thick, without touching the base of the plant.

3. Water at Ideal Times

The time of day you water has a lot to do with how much water actually makes it down deep into the soil where your plants can use it. The conditions in the middle of the day are usually the worst.

Early in the morning and late in the evening are the best times. That is when temperatures are lowest and the relative humidity of the air increases. This means the amount of water vapor the air can hold is less, so the water you are applying is less likely to evaporate. Another factor is the wind, which also increases evaporation. Typically early in the morning the wind speed is at its lowest.

This is possibly the easiest tip to implement. Just water how you have been, but in the early morning or late evening. Of course life can get in the way and sometimes this is not practical with your schedule; however, you can easily automate a watering system. By pairing a cheap water timer with an irrigation system, you can schedule what time and how long to water, all while you are still enjoying your morning coffee or even while you are away from home.

4. Take Care of Your Plants So Extra Water Isn’t Needed

Obviously weeds take precious water and nutrients from the plants you are trying to grow. That is why gardeners work so hard to eradicate them from gardens. But a weed can actually be considered any plant growing where it should not be. As hard as it is to remove some of the seedlings that sprouted from seeds you actually sowed, it is actually important to do so.

Crowded plants are spindly and will produce less in the same area than those properly spaced that are not competing so hard for resources, including water. They are essentially weeds. You can start taking steps to correct plant growth right away. If you have plants too close together you can use scissors or pruners and cut some of the excess out, so the ones you leave behind start producing more.

Pruning plants is also important for water conservation. It is training the plant to grow and produce how you want it to. Many plants grow a lot of branches or stems and foliage instead of using their resources to produce the fruit or flowers you planted them for. That is why the professionals running orchards and vineyards prune so heavily. They can prove the results are worth the effort with their bottom line figures.

The thinning of lettuce and other greens or pulled young carrots make tasty additions to salads, so don’t let their current water use go to waste – eat them! Plants such as tomatoes will produce lots of “sucker” stems at leaf joints. You can safely prune out all but the 2 best stems, even when the plant is large, to have them put their energy into producing fruit instead of growing lots of leaves.

For perennial plants such as trees, vines or bushes it is best to do all drastic pruning in the late Fall or early Spring, so you may have to write a note on a calendar to remind yourself when to tackle those jobs. How you prune depends on the plant. Fruits usually grow on horizontal branches, so cutting out extra vertical growth before they grow in the Spring will result in larger harvests. Look in a growers encyclopedia or search online for how to prune your specific crop to be sure what you do will actually achieve what you want.

5. Choose Drought Tolerant Plants

Many plants and even certain varieties of the same type of plant have naturally, or through specific breeding, developed a tolerance for drought. They will survive, and often even thrive in harsher conditions with less water. And that should be music to your ears if you are looking for ways to save water.

They can do this in a variety of ways, such as deeper root systems, less foliage, or denser growth that is lower to the ground. With a little planning and research up front you will save yourself a lot of watering in the future.

Do a little research before buying. Look up drought tolerant plants in the gardening book section at a library or search online and find some recommended plants. To find information about specific varieties within a plant type try searching for “drought tolerant roses”, or whatever the plant is.

Another easy way is to check the descriptions or labels when buying plants. Most growers proudly display it when a variety excels in this important area. A few minutes comparing the available options can really pay off big over the course of a growing season – or many seasons if you are selecting a perennial.

6. Re-use Water From Your Home

There is no better way to be wise with water than to take water that would normally end up going down the drain and putting it to good use. Graywater is a term for any water that has been used but is still relatively clean. This does not include toilet water because it has come in contact with feces. Even though the water is used and “dirty”, such as bath water, plants don’t mind and can even benefit.

The simplest way to get started right away is by catching all the water you can at each faucet. Place a bucket or container by each faucet and instruct those in your household to direct the water in it any time they wash their hands (or produce). Another great opportunity is to catch the cold water that initially comes out when you turn on the shower to warm up before getting in. Then all you have to do is take the container and water a thirsty plant with it. Also, water that you have used to cook with can be used in your garden instead of being emptied down the drain.

Another unexpected place to save water is from your air conditioner. You can collect water from the air conditioner by collecting condensation from the condensation outlet. Just place a bucket under your outdoor air conditioner and you will be amazed by how much water you can collect.

A tip that can save you water and time transporting gray water is to have a hose handy in the garden when you are harvesting and clean your produce right there in the garden next to a plant that needs water. You can get even more elaborate on a gray water system later if you want to. Diverting washing machine and sink drains to holding containers similar to rain barrels is a great way to gather a lot of re-usable water for your plants.

Be careful when using graywater with vegetable plants. Graywater should not be used to water a garden that contains below ground food crops- like potatoes. It is safe for graywater to be used on above ground crops like tomatoes. Just make sure the graywater is applied directly to the ground and avoid splashing the part you’re going to eat later.

7. Harvest Rainwater To Save For Dry Times

It’s no secret that it rains more in certain seasons. It is also hot and dry during much of the growing season most places. Regardless of when it comes, much of the valuable rainfall lands on roofs, drives, patios, or other areas and runs off without helping your plants. If you catch the water when it is raining, you will have it to use for your plants during the dry times.

Runoff from your house and shed roofs is perhaps the easiest way to catch lots of water in a hurry. Start by placing any available bucket or barrel under the downspouts of guttering systems. Not having a guttering system is no excuse not to start though, just place containers under eaves, especially in corners where multiple roof surfaces run together and start a new harvest – of water. Then you can easily dip small containers into the large ones you caught the water in and pour it on your plants as needed.

For storing long term, such as Spring rain saved for the dry Summer months, you will want to upgrade your harvest containers to closed ones to keep out debris and keep it from becoming a breeding pool for bugs such as mosquitoes. Just don’t let that kind of formality stop you from saving some of the next rain to water your plants within a shorter time span like a week or two.

8. Group Plants With Similar Needs So Water Isn’t Wasted

This is a big one that a lot of people miss. If you plant a crop like melons, whose fruit is made up of mostly water, next to potatoes, you will have a watering problem. The extra water you have to provide for the melons is not only unnecessary for the potatoes; it may in fact cause them to rot underground. The wrong amount of water results in a big form of garden waste – not only was the water for the potatoes wasted during the time it grew before spoiling, but also all the time you put into planting and caring for it.

Even if your current planting arrangement violates the principle of grouping plants with similar water needs, it is not too late to apply the right amount of water to each plant. A simple way to do this is to use the dirt around the plants to either contain water near a plant that needs extra watering or create a barrier so that water drains away.

If you want to contain water near a plant that needs extra water, you can create a ring with the soil around the plant. That way you can fill the ringed area with water and it will be held in place until it soaks in. If you want to create a barrier for a plant that doesn’t need as much water as surrounding plants then you would create a mound that allows the water to drain.

Over the long term you can plan your garden so that you can apply an optimum amount of water to each plant. Once you have grouped plants that need similar amounts of water together it becomes much easier to make sure that plants aren’t getting too little or too much water.

9. Plant Close Enough To Provide Shade For The Roots

If you space plants so they will just be touching when mature, or even overlapping a little, it can actually save water. Think about the difference between being in the shade and being in the sun on a really hot day. There is a big temperature difference. The warmth from the sun speeds up the rate in which water is evaporated from the top several inches of soil. Even though plant roots typically go much deeper than that, they still have roots in that upper zone.

By planting your plants close enough to touch and shade the soil they create a kind of living mulch. Moist soil has increased microbial activity that will help break down organic matter into usable food and cause plant’s root systems flourish. Instead of frequent watering to try to regain this moisture level and start the soil’s biological activity again, your watering will be less frequent while still maintaining it.

If you have plants that are spaced too far apart to have this advantage, you can begin by transplanting some of them in between the others. If the plants are already large enough this would be a bad idea, or are just a type of plant that does not like to be transplanted, plant something else in between existing plants. There is no law that says plants have to be the same variety for this to work. In fact quite the opposite is true.

If you plant smaller plants at the base of taller plants the results can be amazing – less competition for available light, two crops where you normally only get one, different nutrients used by each – on top of the advantages of shade for the roots. The water you do apply can go even farther in this case because often root systems reflect plant height. Taller and larger plants will likely have deeper roots that will be using water at that level, and the new smaller plants will usually have shallower roots and be using the water from the upper levels of the soil.

10. Choose Vegetables That Will Produce A Lot On One Plant

Quick question: Which takes more water to maintain? 10 or 20 tomato plants? This is not a trick question. Obviously the 10 plants will require less water. If you choose a variety that yields more on each plant then not only do you water less but you harvest about the same amount. To find plants that yield a big harvest, start by looking at the estimated yield for plants before planting them. You can do this for all future seed or plant purchases.

Some varieties also do better in certain areas than others. By choosing varieties suited for your growing conditions you are putting them in the proper environment to produce their biggest yields. Talking to other gardeners about which varieties they have had success with, finding descriptions in catalogs of regional favorites, or finding catalogs, websites and books about certain regions are all great ways to find this crucial information.

Even if you have already planted some plants that may not be best for your area you can coax them into providing a larger harvest for the amount of water and work you put into them by fertilizing them properly and following some of the other tips in this list.

11. Harvest Vegetables As Soon As They Are Ready

It takes a lot of nutrients and water for plants to produce food. If you are serious about saving water, you have to know what stage the produce is perfect and pick it at that point. If you wait too long, plants are using extra water growing large tough fruit to protect seeds. Often larger veggies are too tough to eat, lower in nutrients, not as flavorful as younger fruit and at some point not even edible. By waiting too long you might waste days or even weeks worth of water on a useless harvest.

There is no hidden hard and fast rule that will tell you when every vegetable is ripe. Some veggies are ready when they slip easily from the vine if you pull on them gently. Luckily almost all are edible and tender when picked early, so if in doubt try one and see. If you are unsure when a particular vegetable is at its prime try looking in a cook book index for that vegetable. Often they give shopping advice on what to look for and what to avoid.

Another way is to look at the produce in stores or farmer’s markets. Keep in mind that store produce is usually allowed to get larger and tougher because it has a longer shelf life that way, so pick your produce at a younger stage and you will have that wonderful fresh flavor without wasting water letting it get too tough.

12. Choose Water Efficient Containers

Not all pots are created equal and you want to choose a container that minimizes water loss. There are several things you should look for in a container. First of all make sure the pot will contain moisture. Avoid pots that have fiber liners that you typically find with hanging baskets. Obviously they leak really badly.

If you have already purchased one of these or you received one as a gift you may consider lining it with a plastic and only punch a few holes through the plastic so there won’t be any waterlog.

There are a few things you want to look for when selecting a container. One thing is the color. Darker colors are going to absorb heat and cause more water to evaporate quicker. So choosing a lighter reflective color is more ideal. Also the material of the pot plays a role in the decision making process.

Avoid materials that are porous because the pot itself will absorb water that the plants could be using. Some of those materials include concrete, terracotta, and clay. Some more ideal pot materials that are waterproof include glazed ceramic, glazed terracotta, or even plastic. You could even transform some of your existing porous pots by painting them with a waterproof paint or putting a plastic pot inside and planting in it instead.

By applying some of the other tips on this list you can make your container garden more water efficient. By grouping potted plants together you can make use of shade to decrease evaporation. Also, installing a drip system designed specifically for containers you will be able to apply water more slowly. Water being applied slowly will allow the soil time to soak it up instead of having a puddle at the top evaporating away. Less water will also drain away because the plant’s roots have more time to absorb the water, instead of the water quickly passing through and draining away.

13. Know the Signs of Drought and Don’t Overwater

Carefully observing plants will tell you volumes about their condition and when to apply the necessary water amount. When you are familiar with a plant and how it looks typically, changes in appearance or growth will let you know something is not right. Part of this comes by experience, and as confusing as it may seem, the symptoms for a plant suffering from drought and from over-watering can actually be fairly similar.

The signs plants show will vary by the plant, but here are some guidelines on what to look for. Something to keep in mind over a week or longer period is how plants are growing. If they are just slightly under-watered, plant growth slows down and they appear stunted compared to what they ought to be. Plant foliage will usually give you the most information about how they are doing. The leaves on many plants will change from a shiny healthy look to a dull, less vibrant appearance.

Just because a plant is wilting, it is not safe to assume it needs water. More water is not always better. In fact the opposite could be true, and could result in a significant amount of wasted water and sick plants. Plant roots not only need water, they also need oxygen. Standing water or water-logged soil can be likened to drowning your plants. They won’t be able to “breathe” in oxygen from their roots because all of the air pockets between soil particles will be filled with water, and they will begin to wilt and die.

Plants that are wilting, even though the soil is still wet or damp, are probably over watered. Besides wilting, look at the leaves for other signs of too much water as well. Leaves or leaf tips turning brown or yellow, or leaves falling off while still in the growing season are other signs of possible over-watering. An odd blistering or bumpy look on leaves is also caused by too much water. By absorbing too much water, pressure can build up in leaf cells, and when the pressure is too great they will have a blister or lesion-like appearance. The cells may then rupture and die, and growths form where the blisters were.

When in doubt, always stick your finger in the dirt or dig down a few inches first to check the moisture content before assuming a wilting plant needs water. If you really want to be exact about the moisture in your soil you could even purchase a Moisture Meter online or from a gardening store.

14. Irrigate Smartly to Avoid Wasting Water

Believe it or not, by being sparing when you water you will actually end up wasting water. This happens for a couple reasons:

  • First, the water will stay in the upper levels of soil, and water at that level evaporates at a much faster rate because the soil is warmer and is exposed to wind and heat from the sun.
  • The second reason is tied to the first and is an important fact about plants. Their roots naturally grow toward water.

By only watering enough to wet the first few inches of soil, you are actually training the roots to stay in that shallow danger zone and telling them to not grow very large because there is not much water to be had. When it gets hot and the top layer of soil inevitably dries out, the plant will go into emergency water conservation mode – wilting and halting growth until conditions improve. When you come along and water again, or it cools off in the evening, the plant can begin recovery and start growing again, but valuable time and resources are wasted.

If your watering routine is applying water quickly and often, such as once or twice a day using a shower head on a hose, or just an open hose, you are applying water faster than it can soak in to the deep level needed. Water needs to be applied much more slowly to make sure it soaks into the soil deeply.

15. Use Drip Irrigation to Slowly and Efficiently Water Your Plants

The best way to target the proper depth of soil is to irrigate slowly and for longer periods of time, ideally with quality drip irrigation. Low quality systems typically apply water unevenly, so some places are saturated and there is runoff, while other places still need water. Start by assessing which plants are close enough together to water at the same time. If plants are fairly close together, such as in beds or rows, look at evenly spaced watering devices like drip tape.

If they are in the same area but there is quite a bit of space between them that does not need to be watered, such as pots or bushes, look into options where you can place individual emitters at each. You do not have to water everything the same way. Look for systems that are flexible that you can add more and modify later as you need to. High quality drip irrigation can typically be placed under soil or mulch. A buffer of dry material makes it even more efficient by almost completely eliminating the small amount of evaporation that still happens before the drips soak in deeply.

If you are looking for a free option that mimics drip irrigation, you could start with an empty milk carton or plastic soda bottle and poke a small hole (small enough it drips) in it with a pin or the tip of a sharp knife. Fill the container with water and place it at the base of the plant. As the water drips slowly it will naturally be absorbed deep and spread out, signaling the roots to do the same. This quickly becomes impractical if you have lots of plants though, but can still be useful for plants that are off by themselves and it is impractical to run a water line to their location.

Remember, you don’t have to do everything on this list. Pick whichever ones stand out and get started. Every little bit helps, and over time these things really add up when it comes to saving water in your garden.

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Watering Systems for Gardens: Easy to Understand Comparison

There are many different watering systems for gardens available. The options vary by simplicity, costs, and effectiveness. In this article, different garden irrigation systems will be compared:

Sprinkler System– Watering with a sprinkler system is another easy way to water your vegetable garden. It’s good for watering gardens with sandy soil because the water is absorbed quickly. You can also cover a larger area at a time so watering doesn’t take as long.

One downside to a sprinkler system is that even though you might be saving time watering your garden, you might be making up that time pulling weeds. Because the sprinkler system is not concentrated on just the plant, but waters over a broad area, not only are you watering your vegetables but you are also watering the weeds that are anywhere close to the area. Sprinklers can also constantly wet the leaves of your plants which can increase the chance of plant disease.

A sprinkler system can also be wasteful. By spraying the water in the air, a portion of it will evaporate without ever reaching the roots for the plants to use. If you live in an area that has hot temperatures and is susceptible to drought, then even more of the water is going to evaporate. Runoff can also happen with a sprinkler system if the soil doesn’t absorb water very quickly.

Hoses– Watering your garden with a hose probably isn’t the best watering system to use for anything other than container gardening. Usually too much water is coming out of the hose at one time and the water doesn’t soak into the ground, which causes a lot of water to be wasted by runoff. The reason it is best used for watering in a container is because the water stays put in the container and it’s easy to tell how much water you need to effectively water the plant.

Hose watering is simple and easy, but just not very effective. One advice to make hose watering more effective would be to turn down the water pressure so that the water comes out more slowly and has a better chance to sink in.

Soaker Hose- A soaker hose is another simple and inexpensive way to water your garden. It’s easy to use, all you have to do is hook up the soaker hose to a water source like you would a hose, and water leaks out of the hose and onto the soil. A soaker hose is a porous hose that leaks out water droplets. The soaker hose can be laid in rows or curved around plants. It releases the water slowly reducing evaporation and runoff.

Although soaker hoses are inexpensive at first, the costs may add up by buying a new soaker hose every couple years, more or less, depending on the quality. Usually soaker hoses do not do well when exposed to the sun and will eventually disintegrate into pieces.

Most soaker hoses tend to have problems with keeping even water pressure throughout the soaker hose. Most soaker hoses have more water leaking out of the hose end that is closer to the water source than the other.

Drip Irrigation- The ultimate and absolute best way to water plants. Water slowly drips through emitters in flexible plastic pipes or drip tape. The water pressure is constant throughout and the water drips on the plants slowly, allowing the water to be soaked in deep so the plant can develop deep roots. The water is also less likely to be evaporated using this system of watering.

Even though drip irrigation is the best way to water plants, it can be pricey and complicated. Most kits that you can buy come with over fifty different parts and long twenty page instruction manual to figure out. If you do set it up correctly, it will save you time in the long run, but the hours it takes to initially set up will be a pain.

Drip Hose- Drip hose is the best compromise between the world of soaker hose and drip irrigation. The price is comparable to the price of a soaker hose, and it’s just as easy to use as soaker hose. It functions like drip irrigation though. The water pressure is even throughout and it slowly releases drips of water onto the soil. It is also made from better quality parts. The drip hose is going to be able to withstand many years in the sun, about 10 years, if you take care of it. Your drip hose is more likely to be destroyed by accidently running a plow through it, or having an animal chew on it, than from sun damage.

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